This glossary explains key concepts related to the Maintain Suite of documentation.

Access file

Contains information needed by WebFOCUS to access the data in a data source. The Access File includes the real name and location of the data source.


A group of procedures and other components that work together to achieve a common goal. An application can be distributed across many servers, access varied data sources, and support multiple users.

Boolean expression

An expression in a programming language that returns a value of true (1) or false (0), based on the outcome of two or more relational expressions. Boolean expressions are often used in conditional expressions.


The template of an object. A class defines what type of object it is, and what it can do using variables and functions.

Controls Palette

A component in the Form Editor that contains the controls you can place on a Maintain form, such as text, radio buttons, check boxes and so on.

data access logic

The code that extracts data from the data source, manipulates it, and writes it back to the data source. All data access logic is coded using Maintain language.

data source stack

A non-persistent (or in-memory) table where you can store and manipulate data from one or more data sources. WebFOCUS Maintain procedures use stacks to hold values read from the data source and to manipulate data before writing it back to the data source.

database logic

The code that implements NEXT, INCLUDE, UPDATE, DELETE, and REVISE commands.

DBA (Database Administrator)

A user, whose role is to perform development, design, and monitoring of the database. A DBA has unlimited access to the Master File and data source, and can set up or change security restrictions for individual users.

deep copy

Copies both the appearance of a control and any underlying data bindings, event handlers, and connections to resources. See shallow copy.

deployment scenario

Maps all of the components in your project to a WebFOCUS Server or a web server.


An action that an end user performs, such as opening a form, clicking a button, or moving to a field.

event handler

A programmable response to an action performed by a user, such as entering text in a field or clicking a button.


An interface object that enables you to interact with an application. You can create a Maintain application containing multiple forms.

Form Editor

A tool in the Maintain Development Environment (MDE) that enables you to design the user interface for your Maintain application.

front end

The user interface with which the end user interacts. This generally includes forms, web links, and scripts.


A series of commands in a procedure grouped together as a unit of control. Also known as cases.

import module

A non-executable procedure that contains Maintain language code.

Java applets

Compiled Java programs that can perform interactive animation, immediate calculations, or other simple tasks without having to send a user request back to the server.


A small, object-based scripting language that you can use to create functions that can be embedded in or called from HTML pages. When you execute your application, your browser will interpret the code and perform the actions required.

logical transaction

A collection of data source operations that can access several data sources and that can be issued from several procedures.

Master File

A file that describes the data used by WebFOCUS Maintain. The extensions are .mas and .acx.

member functions

A class property that defines what you can do to objects of a class, and how you can manipulate the data. They exist only as members of the class.

member variables

A class property that defines data in the form of variables, existing only in the class.

N-Tier Applications

Applications capable of distributing processing over multiple platforms, which allows the creation of relationships among disparate data sources and increased application speed.

numeric expression

An expression in a programming language that performs a calculation using numeric constants, fields, operators, and functions.


An instance of a class that encapsulates both data and processes.

Output window

An area in the Maintain Development Environment (MDE) that displays messages generated by WebFOCUS Maintain as well as Search Project results.

persistence logic

When an application processes a Winform_Show command, a formatted HTML screen is returned to the user, and the procedure and processing agent "waits," or persists, until the user invokes another submit through the Servlet back to the running procedure. The Attach Manager of the server, using the cookie, reattaches the user to the waiting procedure and processing agent, and the processing continues. In this way, the waiting procedure and processing agent retain the context of the user between the different forms or screens of the application user experience

presentation logic

Maintain syntax and browser script code that describes and implements the user interface for the application.

pre-database stack processing

Data source stacks that must be fully transformed to match the data control being used on the form before being returned to presentation logic procedure.

property sheet

Enables you to view and edit properties and events for your forms and controls.

Resource Wizard

A tool that helps you add resources, such as image files, HTML files, Java applets, and ActiveX controls to your project. Resources are non-native Maintain project components that you can use in the forms you design.


A component in the WebFOCUS Maintain project that contains stand-alone functions, written in either JavaScript or VBScript for execution on the client.

set-based processing

Enables you to read, manipulate, and write groups of records at a time. The data is manipulated using a data source stack.

shallow copy

Copies the appearance of the control. See deep copy.

starting procedure

A procedure that you designate to be executed first, when running a project from the development environment.

Synonym Editor

A tool that enables you to view and edit the attributes of a synonym.

transaction integrity

A condition where the transaction is written to the data source only if all of its component commands are successfully written to the data source. If one part of the transaction fails, Maintain automatically rolls back the entire transaction, leaving the data source unchanged. Transaction integrity also ensures that when several users share access to the same data source, concurrent transactions run as if they were isolated from each other.

user context

The value of the variables and stacks of an application, the position in the database, and the state of the transaction at any given time.


A named storage location capable of containing a certain type of data that can be modified during program execution.


A scripting language similar to JavaScript, except that it is only supported in Microsoft Internet Explorer.

web link

An object that contains a valid URL, such as a web page, email address, or FTP server.